Monday, March 16, 2020
History of Globalization Great Depression Essays History of Globalization Great Depression Essay History of Globalization Great Depression Essay The consensus about the causes of the Great Depression remains today very little. Through empirical testing, Fickler and Parker (1994) considered the main mono-causal theories and showed that none of them could explain on their own the depth, the length and the consequences of the Great Depression. This international crisis was a complex phenomenon which resulted from the combination of different occurrences. We shall then consider each of these parameters and evaluate the extent to which they contributed to cause the Great Depression. The Great Depression may firstly be considered as the result of structural Issues f the inter-war economy induced by World War l. Both political and economic structures were indeed deeply disrupted by the international conflict which tore the whole world up. Disruption of production during the war had permanent effects on trade patterns, trade politics and policy preferences. World War I may be an indirect cause of the Great Depression to the extent that it had profound consequences on international trade and investment flows. First of all, war-induced diversion of production(Horopito, 2004, 33) logically created a propitious context to the rise of protectionist measures. As a matter of fact, World War I had a deep Impact on the Inter-war real economy. The Inter-war period was marked by excess supply issues due to two mall mechanisms. Firstly, non- European primary production highly expanded owing to trade restrictions during the war. As the world economy returned progressively to freer trade after 1918, these new sources of supply induced an extra-offer and a downward pressure on prices. This harder competition reawakened a real demand for protectionist policies. Secondly, European heavy-industry over-expanded in order to sustain the war effort. This over-expansion led to post-war excess supply and contributed to the development of protectionist forces. This protectionist tendency is confirmed by the increase of post-war tariffs across the major trading countries. Protectionist measures depend on the scarcity of productive factors; that is to say that governments protect sectors for which the main factor of production is scarce. For example, Britain and France implemented high tariffs on capital-intensive manufacturing Industries, whereas the united States of America set protective tariffs on labor-Intensive manufactures. This shift In trade policy preferences may have averred the Great Depression. The rise of barriers and the increase of trade costs Down lea Inane to market Allegations, Down In terms AT volume AT trace Ana international capital flows (Haynes, Jacks and Recourse, 2009). Market disintegration is undeniably harmful to economic growth and global competitiveness, owing to the fact that it implies a strong tightening of outlets and a growing uncertainty in the global economy. In this way, World War I deeply affected the structures of trade policy preferences and entailed a shift in international cooperation. These consequences described above may have contributed to cause the Great Depression. Nevertheless, it seems that the sasss global crisis resulted not only from this international context but a greater number of economic parameters. Many scholars studied the Great Depression and its origins in the late 20th century. Certainly useful to understand current economic phenomena, the Great Depression arouses both academic and public interest. We shall then see which causes have been put forward and how convincing they each are. First of all, Anna Schwartz and Milton Friedman put forth the hypothesis of a monetary cause of the Great Depression. According to their analysis, movements in the real economy can be linked to the disruptions in the financial sector at that time. The Great contraction of the money supply (Friedman and Schwartz, 1963) may be an explanatory factor of the Great Depression to the extent that it worsened deflation. This hypothesis seems to be supported by empirical facts; money supply dropped by 35% in the United States, a great number of banks bankrupted, and prices decreased by approximately 33%. The banks failure induced a decrease of private wealth and a drop of money supply, which both contributed to exacerbate fellatio. The monetary explanation of the Great Depression implies a failure of the Federal Reserve in its role of lender of last resort. The simultaneity of deep deflation and continuous contraction in money supply reveals a systemic flaw. Schwartz and Friedman claim that the Federal Reserve had the ability to block deflation and therefore limit the damages of the crisis. As a matter of fact, the Federal Reserve did not lend to banks to avoid panics and did not implement a monetary expansion whereas the amount of gold allowed such a policy in the early sasss. The monetary lice of the United States may have in this way contributed to the strengthening of the Great Depression, but this hypothesis does not explain the reasons behind the behavior of the Federal Reserve and fails to explain the crisis on its own. The monetary hypothesis is not enough if considered as an isolated cause, especially since it cannot account for the unprecedented decline of output during the Great Depression (Brenan, 1983). In this perspective, financial disruptions other than shocks to the money supply also have an impact on the level of prices and level of output. The main argument supporting this non-monetary explanation is debt deflation and financial markets inefficiency. Firstly, over-indebtedness and deflation in the inter-war period led to a downward deflationary spiral which was detrimental to the global economy. Deflation created indeed an increase of real debt burdens for many countries, and therefore drove them to insolvency. To this phenomenon is added a decrease of aggregate demand, which contributes to worsen deflation in a villous clear mechanism (Hasher, 1 ) secondly, ten Atlanta panics enlarger markets efficiency. Financial disruptions of the recession period led to misinformation and inefficient allocation of funds from lenders to borrowers, which induced an increase in the cost of credit. As credit intermediation was getting more expensive, this non-monetary mechanism contributed to lower aggregate demand and therefore to make the recession even worse (Brenan, 1983). The combination of the monetary hypothesis and non-monetary financial disruptions seems to provide a satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon that contributed to turn the initial recession into the Great Depression. However, these approaches mainly account for the experience of the United States and do not entirely apprehend the international nature of the crisis. The main cause of the internationalization of the financial crisis remains in the major flaws induced by the gold standard, which provide a reasonable hypothesis to comprehend the Great Depression as an international economic cataclysm (Parker, 2002). Issues linked to the reconstruction of the gold standard during the inter-war period constitute the most important factor explaining the cause, the depth and the Engel of the Great Depression. It is here essential to go back to the premises of the gold standard in order to understand how its mechanisms combined with contextual conditions led to the Great Depression. During the 1870-1914 period, the gold standard operated as a fixed exchange rate system, that is to say that each national currency was convertible in gold at a fixed exchange rate. The success of the whole system is based on free flows of gold between countries involved and requires free international capital flows. The gold standard allows indeed an automatic adjustment f trade balances, known as the Home mechanism, which requires specific conditions to work efficiently. Countries experiencing a trade deficit lose gold to the benefit of their trading partners. In order to meet the gold standard rules, this phenomenon leads to a monetary contraction and to the rise of interest rates. The trade balance can progressively go back to equilibrium through an increase of foreign capital influx in countries losing gold. In addition to this mechanism, money contraction in these countries applies a downward pressure on prices. The improvement of imitativeness therefore contributes to re-establish the trade balance equilibrium. Such an adjustment mechanism requires a strong international commitment and a real cooperation within members in order guarantee smooth gold and capital flows on an international scale. Predictably enough, the gold standard was suspended during World War I but by the end of 1928, the United States, France, the United Kingdom and Germany had re- established the system of pegged exchange rates. If it worked between 1870-1914, the inter-war period was a completely different time, and the re-establishment of the old standard was doomed to failure. We can firstly underline a difference in terms of wages flexibility. Before World War l, wages were relatively flexible, and an adjustment was possible in case of a bad shock on the gold standard system. The rise of democracy, socialism and trade unions during the inter-war period made this adjustment more Doolittle to Implement. I Nils macerate progress also reluctance political costs of neglecting the internal balance. Because of electoral stakes, it became essential for governments to deal with unemployment rates, and internal affairs progressively overrode the gold standard necessity to maintain a sound external balance. As a result, the main conditions to ensure currency convertibility was often not observed, I. E. A domestic monetary policy based on long-term prices stability and a commitment to fiscal soundness (Hamilton, 1988). In addition to this, an other characteristic of the inter-war period was against the gold standard success. World War I left inter-allied debts and war reparations as a legacy, which favored non-financial disputes and damaged international cooperation. This contextual aspect partially explains the difficulty to get cooperation between central banks. The academic literature analyzing the structural flaws of the inter-war gold standard is very broad (Gingerers, 1986; Teeming, 1989; Brenan and James, 1991). Four main technical defects may however be considered as the cause of the gold standard collapse. Firstly, the lack of coordination between gold-losing countries and gold-gaining countries produced asymmetries in their responses. As described above, a lost in gold reserves must be followed by a decrease of money supply in order to meet the gold standard requirements. This condition was not observed during the inter-war period, and governmental behavior led to deflation and deeper recession. Countries experiencing gold influx did not implement monetary expansion and therefore corrupted the equilibrating mechanism. In the absence of this appropriate monetary policy, gold-gaining countries such as France and the United States kept extracting gold from the reserves of other countries and imposed even more deflation on gold-losing countries. In 1929, France and the United States indeed concentrated most of the world gold reserves and did not implement monetary expansion. Secondly, the system was widened so that national currency could be back not only by gold reserves but also by reserves of a foreign convertible currency. This new parameter introduced instability and risk as a great pressure was put on some countries. The United Kingdom, for instance, had to control its domestic money supply in accordance with its gold reserves, but also needed to closely follow the amount of currency possessed by foreign actors. Thirdly, the lack of power of central banks negatively impacted cooperation within members. For example, the Bank of France was not allowed to participate in open market operations, and the Federal Reserve failed to detect that a monetary expansion in the United States would benefit the whole world. Last but not least, each government fixed its own parity rate unilaterally when Joining the gold standard. Some countries over-valued their currency and others under-valued it, creating a situation in which the return to the equilibrium was nearly impossible. The system was in that way doomed to fail since it was biased from the very first moment it was re-established. It is obvious that the gold standard was highly corrupted in the inter-war period and that its dysfunctions intrinsically made it unsustainable. Empirical research has proven that the recovery of national economies was highly dependent on leaving the gold standard, which adds value to this hypothesis. By leaving the gold standard, governments were able to use monetary policy as an economic tool again. The obstinacy of political leaders to remain in this fixed exchange rate system explains ten Patten an ten rear Depression. The gold standard hypothesis appears to be a key explanation of the mechanisms that led to the Great Depression in the sasss. As a matter of fact, it allows to comprehend not only the flaws of monetary policies within trading countries, but also he deflationary spiral which significantly dropped the level of international output. Both the monetary hypothesis and the hypothesis of non-monetary financial disruptions seem to follow on from the major flaws of the gold standard. The latter performed as a policy constraint and prevented countries from using the monetary tool in order to revive their economy. This kind of mechanism is reminiscent of the situation encountered by the Euro-zone during the 2008 economic crisis. The requirements related to the common currency do not allow members to use monetary policies with the aim of adjusting their external balance. Even though the 2008 crisis and the Great Depression are assuredly different, bearing in mind historical precedents allows a sharper understanding of current events, in particular when it comes to strategic choices and policy preferences of the main political leaders and policy-makers. Bibliography Brenan, B. S. (1983), Monetary effects of the financial crisis in the propagation of the Great Depression, American Economic Review, June. Brenan, B. S. And H. James (1991), The Gold Standard, Deflation, and Financial Crisis in the Great Depression: An International Comparison, in R. G.
Saturday, February 29, 2020
The virtuous person always exhibits an affectation in the appropriate amount. -for ex. Truthfulness: virtue regarding telling the truth about oneself? Defect: self-depreciating Excess: phony omnipotence- all power and unlimited power Ã¢â¬ ¢Distinguish goods that are, according to Aristotle, valued for the sake of other things, valued for their own sake, and valued for their own sake and for the sake of other things you want some things that gets you other stuff. or example money so its a sake for other things. valued for own sake-having a yacht gives you pleasure but then enjoying it with more friends and travel the world and give you more pleasure. the one good. happiness is the one thing that every one wants and is valued for its own sake. That which is valued only for its own sake and for whose sake everything else is desired Ã¢â¬ ¢That which is valued for its own sake and for the sake of other things Ã¢â¬ ¢That which is valued only for the sake of other things Discuss why Aristotle rejects conventional views that identify happiness with pleasure, honor, and virtue, and what he thinks this tells us about the nature of happiness Aristotle rejects three common conceptions of happinessÃ¢â¬âpleasure, honor, and wealth. Happiness, he says, cannot be identified with any of these things (even though all three may be part of an overall happy life). Pleasure, he says, is found in satisfying desiresÃ¢â¬âbut whether or not we can satisfy our desires is as much up to chance as it is up to us. Ã¢â¬ ¢The life of pleasure. Problem: the life fit for a pig Ã¢â¬ ¢The life of honor. Problem: not under our control Ã¢â¬ ¢The life of virtue. Problem: compatible with inaction Ã¢â¬ ¢Distinguish between psychological, somatic, and external goods, explaining how they contribute to AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s conception of happiness External goods- attractiveness, wealth.. Psychological Goods- mental health.. Somatic goods- Ã¢â¬Å"Nonetheless, happiness evidently needs external goods to be added, as we said, since we cannot, or cannot easily, do fine actions if we lack the resources. For, first of all, in many actions we use friends, wealth, and political power just as we use instruments. Further, deprivation of certain things Ã¢â¬âfor instance, good birth, good children, beautyÃ¢â¬â mars our blessedness. For we do not altogether have the character of happiness if we look utterly repulsive or are ill-born, solitary, or childless; and we have it even less, presumably, if our children or friends are totally bad, or were good but have died Ã¢â¬ ¢Discuss the roles of habituation and right reason in AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis of virtuous action function of human beings is knowledge and it what eparates from animals. virtuous action is what a rational person who acts for the right reason. but you also have to feel the correct emotions and feelings to do virtuous actions and be properly affected which means that you find the right things pleasant. and wants to do the right thing. so if you dont feel like you want to give money to homeless and still give it it do es not count as a virtous thing. the teachers ice cream technique- dont want to do it but do it for ice cream but over time the kids want to do it because it is the virtuous thing to do. Identify and describe AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s three requirements for friendship and his three different kinds of friendship Pleasure-friendships- Most common among theyoung, fades easily utility-friendships,- most common among the old and also fades easily. character-friendships- You love a person because of the good qualities she or he possesses. genuine friendship. Ã¢â¬ ¢Explain what Aristotle means when he claims that friends are Ã¢â¬Å"second selvesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A friend is a second self, so that our consciousness of a friends existence makes us more fully conscious of our own existence. and Friendly relations with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s neighbors, and the marks by which friendships are defined, seem to have proceeded from a manÃ¢â¬â¢s relation with himself. For men think a friend is one who wishes well and does what is good, or seems so, for the sake of his friend, or one who wishes his friend to exist and live, for his sakeÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢Explain why Aquinas thinks GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence is self-evident, why it nonetheless may not be evident to us, and how Aquinas thinks GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence can be made evident Not every human realizes the existence of god. Ã¢â¬ ¢Examples of self-evident propositions: A pig is an animal; a bachelor is an unmarried male Ã¢â¬ ¢Being self-evident in itself versus self-evident to us Ã¢â¬ ¢Aquinas: Ã¢â¬Å"I maintain that God exists is self-evident in itself since its subject and predicate are identicalÃ¢â¬ ¦[but] the proposition is not self-evident to usÃ¢â¬ (197). Ã¢â¬ ¢Question 02: can GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence be made evident? Ã¢â¬ ¢Perhaps GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence is an article of faith, not of reason Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"There are two types of demonstration: those that argue from cause to effectÃ¢â¬ ¦and those that argue from effect to causeÃ¢â¬ (198). Ã¢â¬ ¢Hitting a pool ball, pressing the Ã¢â¬ËonÃ¢â¬â¢ button, hand on the stove So, from what effects do we infer GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence? Ã¢â¬ ¢GodÃ¢â¬â¢s effects in the world, Mozart and his music Ã¢â¬ ¢Understand AquinasÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëunmoved moverÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËteleologicalÃ¢â¬â¢ arguments for the existence of God and articulate at least one objection to each Argument one of five : the unmoved mover (200). Everything has a cause, but causes canÃ¢â¬â¢t go on infinitely. The first uncaused cause is God. Objections: why must it be God? Maybe time is infinite? Telos: the end toward which a thing strives. Everything in nature has a telos. If a thing is non-intelligent, some intelligence must give it its telos. Objection: nature is not telonic in this way Ã¢â¬ ¢Discuss why the question Ã¢â¬Ëcan God create a stone that God cannot lift? Ã¢â¬â¢ is said to be paradoxical and how Aquinas tries to resolve the paradox Ã¢â¬ ¢The paradox of omnipotence: can God create a stone he cannot lift? Ã¢â¬ ¢If God can, there is something God cannot do, i. e. , lift the stone Ã¢â¬ ¢If God cannot, there is something God cannot do, i. e. , create the stone Ã¢â¬ ¢If there is something God cannot do, God is not omnipotent Ã¢â¬ ¢Therefore, God is not omnipotent Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"So we conclude that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s power extends to anything possible in itself and not implying contradiction. Clearly then God is called omnipotent because he can do everything possible in itself. Ã¢â¬ (p. 249). because if god cannot lift the the stone he created, he is not omintipitent and also if he cannot create that he cannot lift therefore he is not omnipotent so either way god is not omnipotent so aquinas says that god creates certain laws in the universe that he himself cannot break which is considered absolute possibility and relativee possibility is what he can change. Ã¢â¬ ¢Explain what Aquinas means when he claims evil does not exist because evil does not exit because evil is absence of happiness Understand the weak and strong versions of the problem of evil and discuss AquinasÃ¢â¬â¢ solution to the problem Strong version of the problem Ã¢â¬ ¢If an omnipotent, omniscient, perfectly good God exists, then evil does not exist Ã¢â¬ ¢Evil exists Ã¢â¬ ¢ Therefore, an omnipotent, omniscient, perfectly good God does not exist Weak version of the problem Ã¢â¬ ¢Evil exists Ã¢â¬ ¢The non-existence of God is a more plausible explanation of evil than is the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient, perfectly good God Ã¢â¬ ¢Therefore, itÃ¢â¬â¢s more plausible that God does not exist If an omnipotent, omniscient, perfectly good God exists, then evil does not exist AquinasÃ¢â¬â¢ answer to the problem of evil Ã¢â¬ ¢Why is there evil and sin in thet world? Ã¢â¬ ¢Evil is the necessary result of freedom of the will Ã¢â¬ ¢Thus, God does not command sin, God permits sin Ã¢â¬ ¢Does God cause evil and sin? Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"God is responsible for sinful actions but not for sinsÃ¢â¬ 296 Ã¢â¬ ¢Distinguish AquinasÃ¢â¬â¢ conceptions of eternal, natural, and human law Ã¢â¬ ¢Human law Ã¢â¬ ¢ Quoting Cicero: Ã¢â¬Å"laws start with what nature produces, then by use of reason certain things become customs, and finally things produced by nature and tested by custom are sanctified withÃ¢â¬ ¦the weight of lawsÃ¢â¬ (420). Eternal law Ã¢â¬ ¢God as divine legislator: Ã¢â¬Å"ClearlyÃ¢â¬ ¦the entire community of the universe is governed by GodÃ¢â¬â¢s reasonÃ¢â¬ (417). Ã¢â¬ ¢Divine providence: ordering of the universe toward good Ã¢â¬ ¢Natural law Ã¢â¬ ¢Non-moral sense: laws of nature. Ã¢â¬ ¢Moral sense: guides the actions of animals Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Since everything subjected to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s providence is measured by the standards of his eternal law, as we have said, everything shares in some way in the eternal law, bearing its imprint in the form of a natural tendency to pursue the behavior and goals appropriate to it. Reasoning creatures are subject to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s providence is a special, more profound way than others by themselves sharing in the planningÃ¢â¬ (418). Eternal law is identical to the mind of God as seen by God himself. It can be called law because God stands to the universe which he creates as a ruler does to a community which he rules. When Gods reason is considered as it is understood by God.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Two pantings from the getty museum - Essay Example Both paintings are approximately from the same time period, with about 20 years difference between each other, both are allegorical, and both make an open and manifest reference to fields of knowledge through the humanization of concepts, personifying mentations. But there the similarities end. Van Mieris' diminutive Pictura is an oil-on-copper that displays a frequent simplicity in tandem with a minute attention to detail (see Getty Museum), typical of the Dutch art from the period, as well as the pearlescent finish in general achieved by using copper as a medium. It is a tiny portrait (5" x 3 ") of a young girl (Pictura, the art of painting in human form) who has an unobtrusive aura about her, whether worked in by Van Mieris or inherent to her nature, we will never know. In the crook of her left arm she holds a small figure, a white sculpture of a nude man that looks very Greco-Roman in its workmanship, possibly alluding to the rediscovery of classical antiquity -that is, an idealized vision of Greek and Roman culture- as a major factor for explaining the origin of the Renaissance (see "Classical"). Also in her left hand she holds a palette and some brushes. Her right hand is poised on a necklace from which a large mask pendant hangs.
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Court cases - Essay Example Frye v United States ruled on in 1933. In this case, Frye was convicted of 2nd degree murder. Attorneys for the defendant proposed an expert witness to testify as to results he discovered using a Ã¢â¬Ëdeception testÃ¢â¬â¢, which is similar to modern day lie detector tests. The expert witness elaborated on how blood pressure is monitored by this device. The expert felt that scientific experiments showed that negative emotions, such as fear or anger, produces a rise in blood pressure. The expert then deduced that the same would occur for someone who is lying, since there would be a fear of detection of the lie. It was further reasoned that speaking truth would be natural, and so no emotion such as guilt or fear would enter the picture, and hence no rise in blood pressure. (FRYE V UNITED STATES) The Supreme Court ruled that there is a difference between (1) expert testimony gained through training and lengthy work experience in the field versus (2) expert testimony that is based on experimental research that has not yet gained solid scientific backing in the science community at large. As a result, the proposed testimony of the expert was not upheld as admissible evidence (FRYE V UNITED STATES). The Ã¢â¬ËFrye StandardÃ¢â¬â¢ thus became a well known basis for future court cases to allow scientific techniques as admissible evidence only if it is already Ã¢â¬Ëgenerally acceptedÃ¢â¬â¢ in the relevant scientific community. The second case is Daubert v Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (DAUBERT V MERRELL DOW PHARMACEUTICALS, INC) Daubert was a 1993 product liability case where the Supreme Court had to determine what type of scientific evidence is admissible in court. Daubert sued Merrell Dow due to birth defects that occurred in two of their children. The mother was taking the drug Bendectin, which was manufactured by Merrill Dow. Science did not provide a direct link between the drug and any birth defects. Statistical data was proposed as an alternate solution, but
Friday, January 24, 2020
Composition II Research Paper Rough Draft title Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In Ã¢â¬Å"The BearÃ¢â¬ by William Faulkner, there are several different personalities and attitudes that come into play at various times in the story. The story is told from the perspective of Isaac McCaslin, the boy of the story and one of the main characters as well, and many critics feel that this was Ã¢â¬Å"probably a projection of FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s own youthful selfÃ¢â¬ (Monarch Notes 5). Isaac was of the aristocratic class of people who were a part of the South, and who also played a significant part of the stories that Faulkner wrote. Another class of people that were a consistent part of FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s short stories were the poor-whites such as the Snopes family in Ã¢â¬Å"Barn Burning.Ã¢â¬ Abner Snopes is a man who seems to blame everyone but himself for his problems. Being a Civil War veteren from the Confederate point of view, he was bitter about the War and the way that the Southerners were treated, though it appears that he brought his parti cular condition upon himself. During the War, the only loyalty was to himself and he remained that way Another class of people that are a significant part of Faulkner short stories are the non-whites which include the Negro, the Indian, and any mixture of the different races found in the South. Abner Snopes gave no regard or respect to the Ã¢â¬Å"niggerÃ¢â¬ (155), who was the de Spain servant and door man, when the Snopeses came to announce their arrival for the sharecropper job, but muttered Ã¢â¬Å"get out of my way, nigger.Ã¢â¬ Sam Waters gained more kindness and respect than that, though he was still a mixed blood in a wealthy, white world. He was Works Cited Faulkner, William. Ã¢â¬Å"The Bear.Ã¢â¬ Big Woods New York: Random House, 1955. 11-97. Faulkner, William. Ã¢â¬Å"Barn Burning.Ã¢â¬ Short Story Masterpieces Ed. Robert Penn Warren and Albert Erskine. New York: Dell, 1954. 148-68. Ã¢â¬Å"Works of William Faulkner: Introduction and Bibliographical Scetch(sic).
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Introduction In this essay, I would like to discuss LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s Second Treatise of Government section 131. This essay is divided into four parts. In the first part, I would like to interpret what LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s position is developed in section 131 and in the next part, I would like to discuss how Locke supports this position by tracing back to the origin of government. Then in the third part, I would like to point out some flaws in this position by arguing evidences provided by Locke to support his position. The last part of my essay is the conclusion. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s Position in Section 131 In section 131, Locke explained that the ultimate aim of uniting a society is to protect the security and property of the people and developed the position that the society should never extend its power farther than the common good of citizens because its supreme power is originated from the consent of people. In a word, according to Locke, the society is obligated to secure their property and is limited by the consent of people. In order to prove the limits of the government, Locke traces back to the origin of government: why man is willing to give up his freedom and subject himself to the dominion of a commonwealth instead of staying in the state of nature where he has right to everything. Three Inconveniences in the State of Nature According to Locke, for a rational man, the reason why man is willing to surrender their rights, though man has right to do anything without being affected by the will of others within the law of nature in the state of nature is the uncertainty of his preservation. The enjoyment is unsafe. Because man is partial to his own interest and is lacking awareness of the law of nature Ã¢â¬ËThat being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessionsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Chapter 2, Section 6) and there are probably continual invasions of others. As a result of this, there are three inconveniences under those circumstances. The first inconvenience is that there are no such established and well-known laws which can be used as the standard to judge what is right and what is wrong so that everyone is uncertain about their future and their property including their security, estate and possession etc. Or if there is a united society, The second one is that there is no popular and indifferent judge to rigidly distinguish between right and wrong by the established law. Everyone can be the judge himself in the state of nature, but they always tend to bias to themselves, their friends and families. The third one is that there is no power to ensure the punishment. In the state of nature, everyone has the right to punish whoever breaks the law of nature. According to Locke, it is executive power. But that may put them in a dangerous situation so that the punishment is hard to be carried out. The origin of the Government According to Locke, due to all these defects in the state of nature, people were thinking about uniting a commonwealth. Surrendering their rights to a sovereign which can use the supreme power to protect them is a remedy. The right of government comes from its subjects, and the government can never override them. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s Solutions to Restrict the Power of the Government and My argument From my perspective, I think LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s position on the limits of government seems kind of idealistic. The biggest question is how citizens can ensure that after the government gains the supreme power, it does what it is expected to do as original intention. Political power has a character to expand itself. If there is no limit of power of the sovereign, even though he is a man who has a good virtue, it is still uncertain that he governs the society following the law without any extemporary decrees all the time. Hence, Locke provides three solutions to restrict the power of the government. There might be some fIaws in them. I would like discuss all of them below step by step. The first solution that Locke provides is that the government is limited by the law established by the consent of the majority. When the sovereign rules the state, he must obey the laws which made by the majority rather than govern it by his own will. Ã¢â¬Å"And so whoever has the legislative or supreme power of any commonwealth, is bound to govern by established standing laws, promulgated and known to the people, and not by extemporary decreesÃ¢â¬ (Chapter 9, Section 131) From my perspective, obviously there is no coercive power to guarantee that the government is run by the law except revolution (I will it discuss in the third point.) Moreover, it is also questionable whether there exists such kind of law which is able to represent the common good indeed. Even in our times when the legal system is more developed than the times when Locke lived, a large number of flaws can be found in our laws. Locke argues that laws can be updated. But no matter how up-to-date the law is, it still cannot cover everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s interest. The universal of controversy cannot be avoided as long as people are in the different situation. Locke himself admitted that when man enters into a society, he gives up his equality Ã¢â¬Å"when they enter into society, give up the equalityÃ¢â¬ . (Chapter 9, Section 131) As there are different classes of citizens, they must have some different interests, which make them in different statuses of society. There is no contradiction unless there is no difference among people. Even that we are equal before the law, we cannot be protected by the laws equally. For instance, is a person is too poor to afford a lawyer, when his right is impaired, he cannot protect his right by law means and if a person has not studied laws, his property might be invaded without knowing it. If the inconvenience is caused by the ignorance, there is no distinct difference between the state of nature and the commonwealth. Furthermore, if there are conflicting interests between a person and the government, it will be in a dilemma. In this situation, if the person protects his own interest by law, interests of government will be impaired. And in the long run that may lead to the impairment of interests of moreÃ people even include the first man who tried to protect his interests by law. Locke may argue that in his second method that he advocates the division of political power and that he divides supreme power into three: legislative, executive and foreign power. What the government has is just executive power. The parliament has right to making law. And the government is run by the law. How can it do beyond the law? Moreover, the legislative power which belongs to citizens is always higher than executive power. It is one of the greatest contributions of Locke that he advocates to make legislative and executive powers apart, but in comparison to three individual powers: legislative, executive powers and judicial review in political system today are employed, like the United State of America, It is not hard to find out the lack of judicial review in LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. Locke only divided legislature and executive branches. It seems that the structure of the government created by Locke is less developed than that of today. Without judicial review, the balance of power is weaker. Even our modern society in which there judicial system exists, the administration tends to gain power from time to time. For example, under the circumstance that judicial review exists, it seems that the strength of the president becomes stronger and stronger in the US. Moreover, Locke thinks that legislature could be formed of not only representatives but also the noble or a single hereditary person who has an executive power. Ã¢â¬Å"Let us suppose then the legislative placed in the concurrence of three distinct persons. 1. A single hereditary person, having the constant, supreme, executive power, and with it the power of convoking and dissolving the other two within certain periods of time. 2. An assembly of hereditary nobility. 3. An assembly of representatives chosen, pro tempore, by the people.Ã¢â¬ (Chapter 16, Section 213) That weakens the strength of legislative further. Even though those two solutions cannot completely ensure the government is run in the right way, Locke provides the third solution that people can take back their rights that they gave to the government by revolution and transfer rights to another sovereign if the government breaks the law ofÃ nature. However, another problem may rise. There is the limit of revolution that Locke provides. According to Locke, the revolution could be legimate only carried out by the majority. What if what the government did is just harmful to the interest of the minority? Can the government united with the majority benefit from the minority by abusing their rights? The only thing that they can do is bearing subject themselves under the exploit. I do not think that Locke himself would like to become one of the minority members in that situation. Sometimes the good of the majority is not necessary the good of the minority. That is also an action of beyond the common good. It can be imagined that the consequence of benefit from doing harm to a small group of people is no difference with a political system of tyranny. In conclusion, Locke supports his statement that the government can only do the common good and never override citizens by tracing back the origin of the government. Because of three inconveniences in the state of nature, people are willing to transfer their rights to a government. The right of government comes from the consent of people, so it can never extend farther. And Locke provides three means to limit the power of government. However, I suggest that there might be some difficulties to carry out these measures. There is no such coercive power to compel the government to play its role by laws. Furthermore, there is a doubt if such kind of laws representing the common good existing. And there is no judicial review to decide whether and when actions break the law. The action of revolutions does not working all the time. The rule of revolution Locke provided may be the legitimate basis of putting the minority in the tyranny of the majority. But in any case, LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory shows us the end of the society and the idea, the balance of power, and directs us to think about the way to improve the political system and make it more democratic.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
This quarter, the Arts and Entertainment section of U.C.L.A.Ã¢â¬â¢s student newspaper The Daily Bruin is running a music column titled Ã¢â¬Å"Sounds of L.A.Ã¢â¬ This column explores how various Los Angeles neighborhoods influence musicians that are based in the city. Including the rock Ã¢â¬â¢nÃ¢â¬â¢ roll landmark of Laurel Canyon, the modern indie beacon of Echo Park, and the rough-and-tumble underground punk scene of East L.A., Los Angeles has birthed hundreds of artists across all genres. I am the writer of The Daily BruinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Sounds of L.A.Ã¢â¬ column, and the more time I spend interviewing and researching these musicians, the more I wonder if the causal arrow actually points in a different direction. While the history and atmosphere of Los AngelesÃ¢â¬â¢s various neighborhoods could influence the artists that call the city home, it is more likely that these musicians are affecting the areas they inhabit, creating communities that reflect their collective mindsets. It is the artists who shape these neighborhoods and turn each section of Los Angeles into areas with individual personalities, using their music to communicate en mass the image and culture that they are promoting. Laurel Canyon is known for its historic rock Ã¢â¬â¢nÃ¢â¬â¢ roll past, a narrative that began in the 1960s when artists like Frank Zappa, Jim Morrison and Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young first moved into the Hollywood Hills. Today, musicians travel from across the globe to be inspired by the nature and spirit that shaped these rock icons.Show MoreRelatedWhat are Optical Illusions? Essay1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbrain comes up with is on two different perceptions of the image and then ends up creating an image opposing reality and does not match actuality. This is all based on two different perceptions that are made by our eyes and brain. Perception is the analysis taken by the sense of a person. 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